Kidney Cancer Surgery
The kidneys' job is to filter the blood and remove waste and excess salt and water. People have 2 kidneys, 1 on each side of the mid-back. Kidney cancer happens when normal cells in the kidney change into abnormal cells and grow out of control.
Kidney Cancer Symptoms
Smaller kidney tumors do not always cause symptoms. But larger tumors and tumors that have spread outside the kidney can cause symptoms, such as:
- Blood in the urine
- Pain on either side of your lower back, in your side, or in your stomach
- A lump in your belly or on the side of your back
- Weight loss that you cannot explain
These symptoms can also be caused by conditions that are not cancer. But if you have these symptoms, you should be checked by a doctor
Kidney Cancer Investigations
Sonography will show if there is suspicious mass in kidney, it`s size and character.
CECT is done to tell if there is any mass in kidney, it`s size and character. It can also tell if there is any spread of cancer to lymph nodes and other organs in abdomen.CECT Chest , Bone scan
These tests help to detect spread of cancer to lungs or bones.
Kidney Cancer Staging and Treatment options
Tumour localized to kidney
Surgery is the treatment of choice.
Partial Nephrectomy – This means removal of tumour with a safe margin all around it. In this rest of the kidney can be preserved. This can be done only if certain criteria are fulfilled.
Partial Nephrectomy can be done by Open/ laparoscopic or Robotic methods
Radical Nephrectomy – This means removal of whole kidney along with its surrounding fat and fascia. This can be done using Open/ Laparoscopic kidney cancer surgery or Robotic kidney cancer surgery
Locally Advanced tumour – Tumour with thrombus in renal vein/ main vein or tumour infiltrating other surrounding structures
This requires radical surgery including removal of kidney, thrombus and other involved structures
Kidney cancer with IVC thrombus
Kidney cancer with nodal disease – In these patients, Para aortic lymph node dissection is done along with Radical Nephrectomy
Metastatic kidney cancer – Targeted therapy/ Immunotherapy is given. Surgery may be done in selected cases.